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Author Gray, Asa, Sarah , Salisbury, William, d. Find in a library. For full details concerning this celebrated expedition, which has been well said "to have been the most momentous voyage of discovery that has ever taken place, for it practically gave birth to the great Aus-tralian Colonies," I must refer the reader to Hawkesworth's "Cook's Voyages," Wharton's transcript of Cook 's journal, and Hooker's "Journal of Sir Joseph Banks. Cook's ship, the "Endeavour," left England on the 26th July, For that period, she was unusually well equipped for scientific work.
Sir Joseph Banks , one of the leading naturalists of his time, and a man of much influence and page xii ample fortune, volunteered to accompany the expedition. At his own expense he provided the requisites for making collections in every department of natural science, and engaged Dr. Solander , four draughts-men or artists, and a staff of servants to accompany him. After rounding Cape Horn , and after a stay of nearly four months at Tahiti and other islands of the Society Group, Cook struck south-westwards across the Pacific. On Friday, the 6th October, , he first sighted New Zealand, and at once stood in for the land.
Delayed by calms and baffling winds, it was not until the afternoon of Sunday, the 8th October, that he anchored on the north-west side of a deep bay, to which he afterwards gave the name of Poverty Bay , and almost directly opposite the present town of Gisborne. Cook immediately landed, accompanied by Banks and Solander , but an unfortunate skirmish took place with the Maoris, one of whom was shot, and the party returned to the ship. The next morning a landing was made in greater force, and some intercourse took place with the Maoris through the medium of a Tahitian interpreter.
Their behaviour, however, was so threatening that it became necessary to fire upon them, and another man was killed and several wounded. Discouraged by this reception Cook once more re-embarked. The following morning another landing was effected, and Cook, together with Banks and Solander , strolled some little distance up the right bank of the Waikanae River. But the Natives again became troublesome, and a retreat had to be made to the landing-place.
Seeing no hope of establishing a pacific intercourse, Cook returned to his vessel, and at daylight the following morning left the bay. Under the circumstances narrated above, it is obvious that little botanising could be done. Banks, in his journal, laments that "We took leave of Poverty Bay , as we named it, with not above forty species of plants in our boxes, which is not to be wondered at, as we were so little ashore, and always upon the same spot.
The only time when we wandered about a mile from the boats was upon a swamp, where not more than three species of plants were found. On the 17th October, when off Cape Turnagain , he determined to return to the northwards, giving as a reason that there was "no likelyhood of meeting with a Harbour, and the face of the Country Visibly altering for the worse. Banks an opportunity to Collect a little of the Produce of the Country. Solander , in his manuscript volume of descriptions, presently to be referred to, enumerates ninety-eight species of plants as having been collected at "Tigadu.
On taking his departure from Anaura, Cook at first stood to the northwards, but the wind being unfavourable, he determined to put into Tolaga Bay , where the Natives had informed him wood and water could easily be obtained for his ship. On the morning of the 23rd he accordingly anchored about a mile from a small cove just inside the southern point of the bay.
Here a stay was made until the 30th October. The Natives were friendly and obliging, and an ample supply of wood and water was obtained. Both Banks and Solander passed most of their time on shore, and an excellent collection of plants was formed. With respect to the vegetation, Cook remarks, "The Tops and ridges of the Hills are for the most part barren, at least little grows on them but fern; but the Valleys and sides of many of the Hills were luxuriously clothed with woods and Verdure and little Plantations of the Natives lying dispers'd up and down the Country.
We found in the Woods, Trees of above 20 different sorts; Specimens of each I took on board, as all of them were unknown to any of us. The Tree which we cut for firing was something like Maple and yielded a whitish Gum. There was another sort of a deep Yellow which we imagin'd might prove useful in dying. We likewise found one Cabage Tree which we cut down for the sake of the cabage. The Country abounds with a great Number of Plants, and the woods with as great a variety of beautiful birds, many of them unknown to us. From the localities cited in Solander 's manuscripts, it appears that about species of plants were collected.
Leaving Tolaga Bay on the 30th October, Cook made sail to the northwards. On the following day he rounded the East Cape , and passing Cape Runaway and White Island which was evidently quiescent at that time , he coasted along the shores of the Bay of Plenty , having occasional intercourse with those Maoris who came off to him in their canoes, but making no attempt to land. On the 3rd November he was abreast of Tauranga , and on the 4th reached the entrance of Mercury Bay. Finding in this locality a secure harbour with plenty of wood and water, and being anxious to observe the transit of Mercury, which was to take place on the 9th, Cook brought his vessel to an anchor.
During a stay of eleven days many plants were collected, figured, and described, the total number, reckoning from Solander 's page xiv manuscripts, being Among those which had not been previously observed was the Mangrove Avicennia officinalis , which occurred in such abundance along the sides of the Whitianga River that Cook gave it the name of the "River of Mangroves. We found it, at first, in small Lumps upon the Sea Beach, but afterwards found it sticking to the Mangrove Trees, and by that means found out from whence it came.
The kauri-tree itself does not seem to have been observed, either by Cook or by Banks and Solander , although common enough on the hills overlooking Mercury Bay. Probably they did not venture far enough from the coast to reach it. Here he found himself surrounded by islands, and not wishing to lose sight of the mainland, kept close under the western side of the Coromandel Peninsula. A short sail brought him to the entrance of the Thames River, where he anchored, almost directly abreast of the position where the town of Thames now stands. On the following day, the 21st November, accompanied by Banks and Solander , he made a boat voyage up the Thames River for a distance of twelve or fourteen miles.
A landing was effected on the west side of the river for the purpose of examining the kahikatea forest which still clothes its banks, and which had attracted Cook's attention at his anchorage. Describing the trees, he says, "We had not gone a hundred yards into the woods before we found a Tree that girted 19 feet 8 inches, 6 feet above the ground, and having a Quadrant with me, I found its length from the root to the first branch to be 89 feet; it was as Streight as an Arrow, and Taper'd but very little in proportion to its length, so that I judged that there was Solid feet of timber in this Tree, clear of the branches.
We saw many others of the same sort, several of which were Taller than the one we measured, and all of them very stout; there were likewise many other sorts of very Stout Timber Trees, all of them wholy unknown to any of us. We brought away a few specimens, and at 3 o'Clock we embarqued in order to return. Here contrary winds were met with, and it was not until the 29th that the cape was weathered, and an anchorage found in the Bay of Islands , where the "Endeavour" remained until the page xv 5th December. During this time visits were made to several of the islands in the bay, and to the mainland; but as it was impossible to go far from the coast, along which the vegetation was by no means varied, not many plants were collected, only seventy-seven being credited to the locality in Solander 's manuscripts.
Leaving the Bay of Islands , Cook continued his survey of the coast to the North Cape , where he met with fierce and prolonged gales of such exceptional character that three weeks were occupied in rounding it. He then proceeded southwards along the western coast, but its dangerously open character prevented him from making a close approach.
In this locality he made a stay of three weeks, taking advantage of his visit to careen and clean his ship, to lay in a stock of wood and water, and to give his crew the welcome change of a diet of fresh fish and green vegetables. He remarks that Queen Charlotte Sound "is a collection of some of the finest harbours in the world," and that "the Cove in which we lay, called Ship Cove , is not inferior to any in the Sound, both in point of Security and other Conveniences.
Taking his departure from Queen Charlotte Sound on the 7th February, Cook first took a run northwards to Cape Turnagain , thus completing his survey of the North Island. He then turned to the south, passing down the east coast of the South Island. On the 17th February he rounded Banks Peninsula , which he took to be an island; on the 25th February he was off Cape Saunders; and on the 10th March he was abreast of the south end of Stewart Island , which he assumed to be a peninsula connected with the mainland by a narrow neck.
On the 13th he passed the entrance to Dusky Sound , from whence he followed the western coast northwards, reaching Cape Farewell on the 24th March, and thus completing the circumnavigation of the South Island.
On the 27th he put into Admiralty Bay , to the west of Queen Charlotte Sound , for the purpose of again renewing his stock of wood and water, and on the 31st he left New Zealand, steering a course for the east coast of Australia. In Cook returned to England.
The natural-history collections, which were the property of Sir Joseph Banks , contained a large amount of material; but no work has ever been published treating of them as a whole. The plants had for the most part been page xvi fully described by Solander at the time of collection, and coloured drawings prepared of many of the species. Little additional labour was therefore required to prepare the results for publication. Evidently Banks intended that this should be done, for at his own expense he had plates engraved on copper, and Solander 's manu-script descriptions were revised and systematically arranged.
Why it was not actually published is by no means clear, but the suggestion has been made that publication was at first delayed by the preparations made by Banks and Solander to accompany Cook in his second voyage, a project which was ultimately abandoned; and that a more serious interruption was caused by Solander 's somewhat sudden death in After his companion's decease, Banks became more and more occupied with his duties as President of the Royal Society, and as an organizer and promoter of scientific research, and the idea of publication appears to have been abandoned.
As stated in the preface, a type-written copy of Solander 's descriptions and a set of impressions from the plates have been liberally furnished by the Trustees of the British Museum for use in the preparation of this work. Of their scientific value I cannot speak too highly; and it is a matter for regret that they were not presented to the world years ago. It is, however, some satisfaction to know that the botanical results of the whole voyage are now, after this long delay, being issued under the auspices of the British Museum , and under the careful editing of Mr.
On the 9th April, , Cook left England for his second voyage, the expedition consisting of two ships, the "Resolution" under his own command, and the "Adventure" under that of Captain Furneaux. John Reinhold Forster and his son George Forster , both well-known botanists, accompanied him in the capacity of naturalists, and were joined at the Cape of Good Hope by Dr.
Sparrmann, also a botanist of repute, and a former pupil of Linnaeus. After several months had been spent in an unsuccessful search for a southern continent, Cook made sail for the south of New Zealand.
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During the voyage he was accidentally separated from the "Adventure," and failing to rejoin her put into Dusky Sound , the entrance to which had been noticed in his first voyage. He remained there from the 26th March, , to the 1st May, mainly for the purpose of refitting, and to give his crew a rest after the months of incessant buffeting experienced in high southern latitudes. During his stay many boat voyages were made to various parts of the Sound, and a careful survey was made of it.
The two Forsters devoted much of their time to botanizing, but their collections were by no means so large as might have been expected, considering what a productive locality Dusky Sound has page xvii proved to be in later years. Among the plants gathered were Olearia operina, Celmisia holosericea, Gentiana saxosa and G. Here she rejoined the "Adventure," which had arrived on the 7th April.
Both vessels left on the 7th June, in the first place for a cruise to the south-east of New Zealand, in further search for a southern continent, and then for eastern Polynesia. In October Cook again directed his course to New Zealand. Making the coast of the North Island near Table Cape , he steered to the south, stopping near Cape Kidnappers to give pigs and fowls to some Natives that came off to his ship.
Up to this time the two vessels had been in company, but off Cape Palliser exceptionally severe weather was encountered, and they separated. The "Resolution" proceeded to Queen Charlotte Sound , which had been appointed a place of rendezvous, and remained there waiting for her consort from the 3rd November to the 25th, when Cook left for a cruise to the Antarctic Ocean. Five days after his departure the "Adventure" arrived, and remained until the 23rd December.
During this stay an unfortunate dispute arose with the Maoris, which led to the massacre of a boat's crew of ten men. After a year's explorations in various parts of the Pacific, Cook once more returned to New Zealand, anchoring in his favourite resort, Queen Charlotte Sound , on the 19th October, His stay was but short, and on the 10th November he left on his return voyage, reaching Plymouth on the 30th July, From the above sketch it will be seen that the only localities botanized in during Cook's second voyage were Queen Charlotte Sound , which had already been explored by Banks and Solander , and Dusky Sound.
But a much longer period was spent in harbour and on shore than during the previous voyage, and the collections ought to have been quite as extensive. Instead of this, they were much smaller, the total number of flowering-plants and ferns not exceeding species. Sets of these were distributed to several public and private herbaria, unfortunately in a somewhat careless manner as regards the nomenclature, thus causing many mistakes and much confusion. Within twelve months after their return the two Forsters conjointly issued a work entitled "Characteres Genera Plantarum," in which seventy-five new genera were shortly described and illustrated, thirty-one of them being from New Zealand.
The book is interesting on account of containing the first published descriptions of New Zealand plants, but otherwise is most disappointing. The descriptions are short and meagre, and the illustrations so badly executed as to be practically useless. In the same year he also issued a little tract entitled "De Plantis Esculentis Insularum Oceani Australis Commentatio Botanica," which includes full descriptions and much curious information respecting the esculent plants, fifty-four in number, observed during the voyage, fourteen of which were from New Zealand.
These three publications, together with a short essay, "De Plantis Magellanicis et Atlanticis," which contains no reference to New Zealand, appear to be the whole of the matter written by the Forsters respecting the botany of Cook's second voyage. Cook's third and last voyage can be passed over with a few words. He left England on the 12th July, , and after visiting the Cape of Good Hope , Kerguelen's Island, and Tasmania , reached his favourite anchorage in Queen Charlotte Sound on the 12th February, , this being his fifth visit to the locality.
His stay was brief, and on the 25th February he finally left New Zealand. Cook's surgeon, Mr. His collections, however, were small and unimportant. In , Captain Vancouver , in command of the "Discovery," accompanied by Captain Broughton in the "Chatham," visited Dusky Sound , making a stay of nearly three weeks. Many of his specimens were figured by Sir W.
He remained three weeks at anchor in Mongonui Harbour, and was most hospitably treated by the Maoris, a hospitality which he returned by burning one of their villages and destroying their canoes, apparently because he suspected them of stealing a boat which had accidentally got adrift. I cannot learn that any natural-history collections were made during this visit. In an expedition consisting of two vessels, the "Mascarin" and the " Marquis de Castries ," under the command of Marion du Fresne and Duclesmeur, arrived off Cape Egmont.
Proceeding northwards, and failing to find a harbour, the ships rounded the North Cape , and eventually anchored in the Bay of Islands , where a stay of over two months was made. Marion and his people were welcomed with page xix such apparent cordiality by the Maoris that no suspicions of treacherous conduct were aroused. They were thus quite unprepared for the sudden attack which was made upon them, and which resulted, as is well known, in the massacre of Marion and nearly thirty of his crew.
A graphic account of this unfortunate incident is given in the journal of Crozet, upon whom the command devolved after Marion's death. The same journal contains an excellent sketch of the natural productions of the country, in which many references are made to the vegetation; hut, as in De Surville's expedition, no collections were made.
In the surveying corvette "Coquille," under the command of Captain Duperrey , arrived at the Bay of Islands , and remained for nearly a fortnight. Lesson, both of whom made collections of some extent. In the beginning of D'Urville revisited New Zealand in command of the same vessel, renamed the "Astrolabe. First sighting the coast of the South Island near Greymouth, he proceeded northwards, and, rounding Cape Farewell , entered Cook Strait. A secure anchorage was found on the west side of Tasman Bay , between the mouth of the Motueka River and Separation Point, in which he remained for a week, forming important collections.
He then crossed to the east side of Tasman Bay , and discovered the strait separating D' Urville Island from the mainland, known to this day as "the French Pass. D'Urville then sailed through Cook Strait , and followed the east coast of the North Island to Tolaga Bay , where a brief stay was made. Continuing his voyage, he rounded the East Cape , crossed the Bay of Plenty , and, passing to the north of the Great Barrier Island , arrived at Whangarei Heads , where he remained for two or three days.
Turning southwards, he passed Cape Rodney and Tiritiri Island, and anchored at the entrance to Auckland Harbour, of which little was known at that time. He landed on both the northern and southern banks of the Waitemata, and, having sent a boat up the Tamaki River as far as the present township of Otahuhu , some of his men were guided by the Maoris across the narrow isthmus to the head of the Manukau Harbour. On the 18th March he finally left New Zealand, having spent a little more than two months on its shores.
After the "Astrolabe" had returned to Europe the scientific results of the voyage were published in elaborate style under the auspices of the French Government. The botanical portion was undertaken by A.
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Richard included not only the species collected in the two expeditions of Duperrey and D'Urville, but also most of those obtained by Forster in Cook's second voyage. It is the first publication dealing with the flora of New Zealand as a whole, and possesses considerable merit, so much so that it is to be regretted that so little use of it has been made by New Zealand botanists. Early in the nineteenth century a trading intercourse sprang up between the North Island and Sydney , and by degrees a small European settlement began to form at the Bay of Islands.
This led to occasional visits from colonial botanists and explorers, and much additional information was thus obtained respecting the flora. In Mr. Charles Fraser , Government Botanist and Superintendent of the Sydney Botanical Gardens , landed for a day in the Bay of Islands , and made a small collection of plants. In his successor, the indefatigable Allan Cunningham , paid a visit of over five months' duration. Through the assistance afforded by the resident missionaries he was able to explore the greater part of the Bay of Islands district, and to visit Whangaroa and Hokianga , making extensive and valuable collections.
In his brother, Richard Cunningham , arrived in H. He also spent nearly five months in travelling through the Bay of: Islands, Whangaroa , and Hokianga districts. In Allan Cunning-ham paid a second visit, remaining at the Bay of Islands through the whole of the winter and early spring; but the precarious state of his health prevented all active work, and his collections were consequently small.
He returned to Australia in October, , utterly exhausted and worn out, as his biographer says, "by twenty-five years of un-wearied exertions and laborious travel," and after lingering a few months, died at Sydney in June, In it Cunningham enumerates the whole of the species published by Forster and A. Richard, including also some of Banks and Solander 's plants which had been described by other botanists. To these he adds the new species discovered during his first visit and that of Richard Cunningham. Although page xxi containing much valuable information, it bears evident marks of hasty preparation, and can hardly be considered an adequate memorial of its enthusiastic and talented author.
The herbarium of both the Cunninghams is now preserved at Kew. Bidwill visited New Zealand for the first time in , and after a short stay at the Bay of Islands proceeded to the Bay of Plenty , from whence he journeyed to Rotorua and Taupo. Crossing Lake Taupo he reached Lake Rotoaira; and, using the Native village there as a base of operations, succeeded in exploring the spurs of Tongariro and in ascending the cone of Ngauruhoe , being the first European to accomplish the feat.
He returned by way of Rotorua , Tauranga , and the Thames Valley. His collections, which were forwarded to Sir W. A few years later he visited the mountains of Nelson , forming a very interesting collection of mountain-plants, which were also forwarded to Sir W. In the years —40—41, Dr. In addition to an examination of the whole of the northern peninsula, from the North Cape to Auckland, he travelled along the western coast to Raglan and Kawhia , and, crossing to the Waipa Valley, followed the western bank of the Waikato River to Lake Taupo.
A project to ascend Tongariro and Ruapehu was frustrated by the opposition of the Maoris, and he returned to Auckland by way of Rotorua , Tauranga , and the Thames Valley. During another journey he explored a large part of the Taranaki District, and was the first European to ascend Mount Egmont. He also visited Wellington , Wanganui , and Kapiti Island , and spent some time in the exploration of Queen Charlotte Sound , Cloudy Bay , and the whaling-stations on the north-east coast of the South Island.
Finally, he paid a visit to the Chatham Islands , and brought away the first plants collected in that outlying dependency of the colony. On his return to England Dieffenbach published his "Travels in New Zealand," the two volumes of which are replete with interesting matter relating to the flora, fauna, and Native inhabitants.
His botanical collections were presented to the Kew Herbarium, but, according to Sir J. Hooker , they are "most scanty, compared with the great extent of interesting ground he passed over. In July, , the French corvette "L'Aube" arrived at the Bay of Islands , and after a brief stay proceeded to Akaroa , remaining there until November, The surgeon attached to these two vessels, M. Raoul, made excellent collections, mainly at Akaroa , and, as he was the first botanist to page xxii investigate the flora of the eastern side of the South Island, many of his plants were altogether new.
In it he reprints the descriptions previously published in the Annales, and gives an enumeration of the known species of the flora, including about species, of which rather more than are flowering-plants. But he accepted all Cunningham's species, many of which were not well founded, and also included no small number of synonyms and introduced plants. If these are eliminated, his list will be reduced to under Raoul's services to New Zealand botany have been well commemorated in the genus Raoulia, dedicated to him by Sir J.
Botanical illustration and photography: a southern hemisphere perspective
The expedition visited the Auckland Islands during , when M. Hombron, who acted as botanist, made a collection of plants, the first formed in the locality. Drawings and descriptions were given of several species from the Auckland Islands ; but all, or nearly all, had been already described in Hooker's Flora Antarctica, presently to be alluded to. Several naturalists were attached to the expedition, and collections of considerable importance were formed. After Wilkes's return, and after many delays, the botanical collections were intrusted to the eminent American botanist, Asa Gray.
The number of New Zealand plants enumerated is not large, but Asa Gray's critical and descriptive remarks are in many cases of considerable value. We now arrive at the Antarctic Expedition of Sir James Clark Ross , which left England in September, , for the purpose of investigating the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism in high southern latitudes, and of prosecuting geographical discovery in the Antarctic regions. It consisted of two vessels, the "Erebus," commanded by Ross, and the "Terror," under Captain Crozier. To the first-mentioned vessel Dr. Hooker was attached as assistant surgeon and naturalist, whilst Dr.
Lyall served in a similar capacity on the page xxiii "Terror. On the 13th December it reached Campbell Island, leaving again on the 17th for a cruise to the Antarctic Circle and the south polar regions. Although the Auckland Islands had been visited by D'Urville and Wilkes during the previous year, nothing had been published respecting the vegetation, and with characteristic ardour Hooker devoted himself to its exploration. The luxuriance of the flora and the relatively large proportion of plants with brilliant and conspicuous flowers at once attracted attention.
Hooker goes so far as to say, when writing of Bulbinella Rossii, "Perhaps no group of islands on the surface of the globe, of the same limited extent and so perfectly isolated, can boast of three such beautiful plants, peculiar to their flora, as the Pleurophyllum speciosum, Celmisia vernicosa, and the subject of the foregoing description. The first volume of the "Flora Antarctica," prepared by Hooker after his return to England, and issued in , is confined to the flora of the Auckland and Campbell Islands.
Altogether, it is a splendid monument of painstaking exploration and research, and it seems almost incredible that the observations and material on which it is founded should have been collected in less than a month. After the discovery of Victoria Land in the summer of —41 Sir James Ross returned to Tasmania , proceeding from thence to the Bay of Islands , which was reached on the 14th August, Here the expedition remained until the 23rd November.
During this period Sir J. Hooker was actively engaged in collecting materials for his projected "Flora of New Zealand," receiving much assistance from Mr. Colenso and other residents. He remarks that his collections "contained no novelty amongst flowering-plants not known to Mr.
Colenso and Dr. Sinclair, with whom I spent many happy days. Amongst cryptogamic plants I collected much that was then new, but most of the species have since been found elsewhere. Since the advance which has been made is almost wholly due to the efforts of the colonists themselves. The foremost place among resident botanists and explorers must be granted to the Rev. Colenso , both on account of the number and variety of his discoveries, and the ardour with which, for a period of no less than sixty-five years, he continued to observe and to collect facts and specimens in almost all branches of natural science, always giving the leading place to botany.
Arriving in New Zealand in , he was induced, first by the visit of the illustrious Darwin in the "Beagle" in , and later by Allan Cunningham in , to take up the study of the botany of his adopted country, forwarding his specimens from time to time to Sir W. Hooker at Kew. At first his collections were confined to the district between Whangarei and the North Cape , but he soon enlarged his field of operations. Space will not permit of a full account of his many journeys, which practically covered the whole length of the North Island, but the following were the most important.
In —42 he travelled on foot from Hicks Bay to Poverty Bay , and from thence inland through the rugged and almost inaccessible Urewera Country to Lake Waikaremoana , which he was the first European traveller to reach. Striking inland again, he followed the upper Thames Valley to its head, and, crossing to the Waikato River , canoed a hundred miles down the river to its mouth.
From thence he followed the west coast to the Kaipara Harbour , then again made for the east coast at Mangawai, finally reaching the Bay of Islands by way of Whangarei and Whangaruru. From that locality he proceeded to Ahuriri Hawke's Bay and the Wairoa River , which he ascended to Waikaremoana, returning by way of Rotorua and Tauranga. In he transferred his residence from the Bay of Islands to Hawke's Bay, and in the following year made his first expedition to the summit of the Ruahine Range , finding there a harvest of previously unknown alpine and subalpine plants. In he travelled by way of Titiokura and the Mohaka River to Taupo and Inland Patea, passing along the flanks of Tongariro and Ruapehu, and returning to Hawke's Bay over the Ruahine Range , which he was the first European to cross.
These journeys and many others, all made on foot, with a few Native companions only, and often under circumstances of great privation and no little danger, are evidence of the ardour and enthusiasm with which Mr. Colenso carried on his botanical explorations in the early days of the colony. Nor did his zeal diminish with age, for the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute contain papers written by him describing plants collected during a journey made to the flanks of the Ruahine Range in his eighty-fifth year.
In addition to numerous writings on the Maori race, on which he was for many years the chief authority, Mr. Colenso contributed no less than fifty-nine papers on botanical subjects to the Transactions page xxv of the New Zealand Institute. Very few volumes, from the foundation of the Institute to the time of his death, are without a communication from his pen. It is true that in his later descriptive writings he adopted views as to the circumscription of species which are in conflict with those held by all other New Zealand botanists, and thus introduced a vast number of synonyms into the flora; but that is a circumstance which must not detract from the recognition of his undoubted services to the botany of New Zealand.
Andrew Sinclair was originally a surgeon in the Royal Navy, and first became known as a botanist from the collections he made while attached to the surveying expedition of H. Hooker and Mr. Colenso in numerous botanical expeditions. Returning to Australia, he met with Captain Fitzroy, who was then on his way to New Zealand as Governor, and who engaged him as private secretary.
Not long after his arrival in the colony he was appointed to the post of Colonial Secretary, which he retained for several years.